Essential Terms to Know to Read and Watch the News: LIST #1

1. Appropriation: anything (usually money or assets) given for a special purpose
2. Bipartisan: involving the agreement or cooperation of two opposing political parties
3. Caucus: a conference (gathering) of members of a group who have a similar agenda
4. Deficit: a shortage, debt, or loss
5. Default: failure to fulfill an obligation, especially to repay a loan or appear in a court of law
6. Democrat Party: one of the two major U.S. political parties (its logo is the donkey); it is the party supporting organized labor, civil rights of minorities, greater government involvement in the economy (more spending, regulating business and federally financed social services, like Medicaid and Social Security) and oppose government involvement in the private affairs of its citizens (e.g. whether or not people want to have abortions, sexual relations, etc.). In the 21st century, most Democrats favor affirmative action, gun control, benefits for the poor, unemployed, the aged and other groups.
7. Domestic: existing or occurring inside a country, a home or family
8. Dow Jones Industrial Average: an American stock market index (created by Wall Street Journal editor, Charles Dow, in 1896) that shows how 30 large, respected, substantial, publicly owned U.S. companies (including American Express, McDonald's, Verizon, Apple, Microsoft, Nike, etc.) that represent a significant portion of U.S. economy. The Dow is a subset of the S&P 500. This index shows how these companies have traded during a standard trading session (one day of business) in the stock market
9. Fiscal: financial, monetary, or budgetary
10. Furlough: leave of absence, especially granted to a member of the armed services
11. GOP: Republican Party (commonly referred to as the Grand Old Party around the Civil War time)
12. Grant: a sum of money given by an organization (especially a government) for a specific purpose; an endowment
13. Inflation: an increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money
14. Infrastructure: the basic physical and organization structures and facilities serving a country, city or area (examples: buildings, roads, highways, and power supplies)
15. Leverage: exertion of force; to use to maximum advantage
16. Nasdaq: an American stock market index that tracks about 4,000 stocks and it is heavily weighted towards information technology companies (like Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Netflix, Viacom, etc.)
17. New York Stock Exchange:a facility where people come to trade and to sell (where the trades of thousands of companies happen), located at 11 Wall Street in Lower Manhattan; the world's largest stock exchange.
18. Republican Party: one of the two U.S. political parties (official logo is the elephant); this party supports states' rights against the power of the federal government, and it opposes the federal regulation of state/local matters (e.g. policing and education); this party typically supports reduced taxes (to stimulate the economy) and opposes government involvement in the economy, government-funded social programs, and affirmative action; Republicans tend to oppose gun control and equal rights for LGBT; Republicans tend to support prayer in schools and a strong, national defense (military) and security.
19. Speaker of the House: presiding officer of the U.S. House of Representatives and leader of the House's majority party; third in line to govern the U.S. (after the President and the Vice President); the current Speaker of the House is Paul Ryan.
20. S & P's 500 (Standard and Poor, the names of two financial merged companies): an American stock market index based on 500 large companies (e.g. AT & T, Citigroup, Coca-Cola, etc.) on the NY Stock Exchange.
21. Wall Street: a street in lower Manhattan that is the original home of the New York Stock Exchange and the historic headquarters of the largest U.S. brokerages and investment banks. It's considered the major financial center of the U.S.

Essential Terms to Know to Read and Watch the News: LIST #2

1. Advocate: noun-supporter or champion; verb-recommend or support
2. Allegation: claim or assertion, typically without proof
3. Assail: attack or criticize
4. Canvasser: someone who conducts public opinion surveys or solicits (obtains) votes
5. Collusion: conspiracy or illegal cooperation
6. Congressional District: an electoral constituency (a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body) that elects a single member of a congress (based on population)
7. Consensus: general agreement
8. Contentious: controversial; debatable; causing argument
9. Conviction: a formal declaration that someone is guilty of a criminal offense; a firmly held belief or opinion
10. Counsel: advice or guidance
11. Delegation: a body (group) of representatives; an assignment
12. Demographic: a specific section of a population
13. Denuclearization: removal of nuclear weapons
14. Gridlock: any situation in which nothing can move or proceed in any direction
15. Legislation: the act of making or enacting laws
16. Lobbying: soliciting or trying to influence the votes of members of a legislative body
17. Mainstream: belonging to a dominant or widely accepted group, movement or trend
18. Mandate: a command or authorized order
19. PAC: political action committee, which is an organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates, initiatives or legislation. Most PACs represent business, labor or ideological interests.
20. Polarization: sharp division into opposing factions (or groups)
21. Rebuke: sharp disapproval or criticism
22. Regulation: rule, order or directive
23. Staunch: loyal, committed, or dedicated
24. Subpoena: a document that requires its recipient to appear in court as a witness
25. Tariff: a tax or duty to be paid on specific imports or exports; tariffs are used by governments to generate revenue or to protect domestic industries from competition

Essential Terms to Know to Read and Watch the News: LIST #3

1. Accord: official agreement or contract
2. Analyst: a person whose job is to study or examine something in an organized way
3. Ballistic Weapons: weapons that are subject to the law of gravity, without being controlled (ballistic=extremely angry)
4. Benchmark: a standard or point of reference against which things may be compared or evaluated
5. Cessation: an ending or termination
6. Chancellor: a senior state or legal official; the head of government in some European countries, like Germany
7. Concession: compromise or act of yielding (giving in)
8. Decree: an official order issued by a legal authority
9. Dignitary: a person considered to be important because of high rank or office
10. Diplomatic: skilled in dealing with negotiations between nations or sensitive matters
11. Disarmament: reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons
12. Economist: an expert/specialist in economics (the stu
13. Inauguration: formal admission of someone into office; beginning/introduction of a system, policy or period
14. Intercontinental: relating to or traveling between two or more continents
15. Intervene: interrupt or come between to prevent something
16. Moratorium: temporary prohibition/suspension of an activity
17. Municipal: relating to internal affairs of a government
18. Nationalism: patriotic feeling, principles or efforts
19. Prime Minister: head of an elected government (the role differs in countries)
20. Provocation: an action/speech that makes someone annoyed or angry (usually deliberate/on purpose)
21. Recession: a period of temporary economic decline
22. Reconciliation: reuniting or restoring friendly relations
23. Restitution: the restoring or returning of something lost/stolen to its proper owner; compensation
24. Sanctions: a measure (or action) taken by a government to coerce (or force) another government to follow an agreement; a restriction on a state/country
25. Summit: a meeting between heads of government